Housed in the Al Riwaq space next to Doha's Museum of Islamic Art, the exhibition, titled “Relics”, is part of a cultural exchange between the two countries.
It is the artist’s first solo exhibition in the Middle East and includes some new work.
In the past Hirst has been known to court controversy, presenting sliced animals in formaldehyde and a £50m diamond-encrusted skull.
Some of the pieces here, while unlikely to shock at the Tate Modern, may nonetheless challenge Qatar’s traditional community, with it being rare in Islamic art to see the naked form.
Giant white balloons, 14 in total, were unveiled to assorted dignitaries earlier this week to the sound of a beating heart. Underneath were large bronze sculptures of embryos in the womb.
Titled “The Miraculous Journey”, the work charts the growth of the foetus from conception to birth. The final piece is a 46ft-high baby boy.
The sculptures were reported to have cost $20million and were commissioned by Sheikha al Mayassa Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, chairwoman of the Qatar Museums Authority. “There is a verse in the Koran about the miracle of birth,” she told the New York Times. “It is not against our culture or our religion.”
As part of the exchange, exhibits including ceramics, glass, calligraphy, textiles and pearl jewellery from museums in Qatar, are on loan to the V&A in London until January.
With the Relics exhibition continuing until January 22, 2014, Doha is building on its reputation as a centre for art and culture in the Gulf.
Qatar UK 2013 is a year-long programme of events in both countries, involving Shakespeare’s Globe, the Royal Academy and the Serpentine Gallery, among others. Doha's annual Tribeca Film Festival meanwhile, is a collaboration with the New York festival.
Another public art project this year saw El Seed, the Franco-Tunisian street artist, creating a series of sprayed murals in city underpasses with the help of local students.
The Museum of Islamic Art, a cubist institution on the waterfront designed by the architect IM Pei, is one of Doha’s biggest draws, and the building is the most striking in the city. Annabelle Thorpe, a Telegraph Travel writer, depicted the vast interior as a clever mix of New York’s Guggenheim and Istanbul’s Yeni Camii mosque.
“The space means exhibits are given room to breathe, and the lighting creates a lovely sense of peace and escape, particularly when it is 50C outside,” she said.